What are Government Bonds

An overview of the different types of government bonds available, their benefits and risks, and how to invest in them.
What are Government Bonds
3 mins
1 August 2023

Investing in government bonds is important to diversify your investment portfolio. Government bonds are essentially loans made to a corporation or government in return for interest payments on a regular basis. When someone buys a bond or security, they are essentially providing a loan to the issuer.

In the case of government securities and bonds, the issuer is the government. These types of bonds are considered relatively safe investments because they are backed by the government. There are a few different types of government securities and bonds to choose from, and each has its own set of characteristics and risks.

What are bonds?

Bonds are a type of investment that typically offers a fixed return and serves as a source of regular income. Bonds are a popular investment option among investors who prefer to invest in low-risk instruments. Different types of bonds are available in the market, each with different features and characteristics that cater to the needs of diverse investor groups.

What are government bonds?

Government bonds, also known as sovereign bonds or treasuries, are debt securities issued by a national government to raise funds for various public spending needs. When an individual invests in government bonds, they are lending money to the government in exchange for regular interest payments (coupon payments) over a specified period, and the return of the principal amount at the bond's maturity.

Key characteristics of government bonds

Here are the key characteristics of government bonds in India:

  • Fixed maturity: Government bonds have a predetermined maturity date, indicating the length of time until the government repays the principal amount to the bondholder.
  • Interest payments: Investors receive periodic interest payments (known as coupon payments) until the bond matures.
  • Debt securities: These bonds are debt instruments issued by governments to raise funds for various purposes, such as financing infrastructure projects, covering budget deficits, or implementing social welfare programs.

Types of government bonds in India

India offers several types of government bonds to cater to the diverse investment needs of investors. Here are the most common types of government bonds in India:

  1. Fixed-rate bonds
    Fixed-rate bonds are long-term government bonds that pay a fixed interest rate throughout the life of the bond. The interest rate is set at the time of issuance and remains the same until the maturity of the bond. Investors who seek income stability often prefer fixed-rate bonds as they provide certainty of returns.
  2. Floating rate bonds
    Floating rate bonds, on the other hand, have a variable interest rate that fluctuates with the market benchmark. These bonds are market-linked and usually offer a spread over the benchmark rate. The interest rate gets reset periodically and provides better protection against inflation from the movement of interest rates.
  3. Sovereign gold bonds
    Sovereign gold bonds are an attractive government savings scheme designed to encourage investment in gold without owning physical gold. The bonds are available in both paper and digital format and pay an annualised interest rate of 2.5% on the investment amount. The value of investment linked to gold prices and can be redeemed in cash or physical gold at maturity.
  4. 7.75% GOI savings bonds
    The 7.75% GOI Savings Bond is a non-transferable bond issued by the government, offering an attractive guaranteed return of 7.75% per annum. This bond has a lock-in period of 7 years and is aimed at retail investors seeking a long-term fixed income security.
  5. Inflation-indexed bonds
    Inflation-Indexed bonds function similarly to fixed-rate bonds, with a key difference being their returns are adjusted according to inflation. They pay an interest rate tied to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) or Wholesale Price Index (WPI), which helps protect investors against inflation.
  6. Zero coupon bonds
    Zero coupon bonds, as the name suggests, do not pay any interest payments to the investors. They are issued at a discount to their face value and tend to mature at par value on maturity. The difference between the purchase price and maturity amount serves as the interest gained for the investor.

Government bonds are a reliable and secure investment avenue for long-term investors seeking a fixed income with a steady and assured return over time. Depending on an investor's financial goals, they can choose from a broad range of government bonds that cater to their investment requirements. Moreover, as government bonds are backed by the government, they carry low default risks, making them one of the safest investment options available.

Pros and cons of investing in government bonds

Investing in government bonds can offer several benefits, as well as some drawbacks. Here are a few of the pros and cons of buying government securities:


  1. Safety: Government bonds are some of the safest investments available. Because they are backed by the government, they are virtually risk-free.
  2. Regular income: Most government bonds pay regular interest payments, which can provide a steady stream of income for investors.
  3. Tax benefits: Some government bonds offer tax benefits to investors, such as exemption from local and state taxes.
  4. Liquidity: Government bonds are usually traded in large volumes, which means they are more liquid than other types of investments like stocks.


  1. Low returns: Because government bonds are so safe, they typically offer lower returns than other types of investments, such as stocks or corporate bonds.
  2. Interest rate risk: Government bonds are sensitive to changes in interest rates. If interest rates rise, the value of existing bonds may decrease, which could result in lower returns for the investor.
  3. Inflation risk: If inflation rises, the purchasing power of the regular interest payments received from government bonds may decrease.
  4. Market volatility: Although government bonds are generally considered to be safer investments, they are not immune to market volatility. Economic factors, political events, and other factors can affect the value of government bonds.

Key takeaways related to investing in government bonds

Investing in government securities and bonds can be a great way to diversify your investment portfolio and provide a stable source of income. However, it is important to understand the risks and benefits associated with this type of investment. Here are a few key takeaways and insights to consider before investing in government bonds:

  1. Understand the types of government bonds available: There are several types of government bonds available, each with its own set of characteristics and risks. Understanding the differences can help you make informed investment decisions.
  2. Consider your investment objectives: The decision to invest in government securities should be based on your investment objectives. If your primary goal is to preserve capital and generate regular income, investing in government bonds may be a good fit.
  3. Stay up to date on economic events: Economic Factors such as inflation, interest rates, and political events can all affect the value of government bonds. Keeping up to date on these events can help you make informed investment decisions.
  4. Diversify your portfolio: As with any investment, it is important to diversify your portfolio to minimise risk. Investing in a variety of assets such as stocks, bonds, and real estate can help protect your portfolio against market downturns.


If you're interested in investing in government bonds, opening a Demat account with a trusted financial institution like Bajaj Financial Securities Limited can make the process simpler and more efficient. A Demat account holds your investment in electronic form, eliminating the need for physical certificates. It also allows you to access a wide range of investment options and manage your portfolio with ease.


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Frequently asked questions

What is the difference between bond and security?

A bond is a type of security that represents a loan made by an investor to a corporation or government entity. A security is a financial instrument that can be traded on a public market, including stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.

What are government securities?

Government securities are financial instruments issued by the government to borrow money from investors. These securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the government and are some of the safest investments available.

What are government securities examples?

Examples of government securities include treasury bills, dated government securities, and floating rate bonds.

What is the cost of capital for government securities?

The cost of capital for government securities is also known as the yield. This is the amount of interest paid to investors who buy government bonds.

What are G Sec bonds?

G Sec bonds are another term for government securities bonds. G Sec stands for government securities.

What are government issued bonds?

Government-issued bonds are financial instruments issued by the government to borrow money from investors. These bonds are backed by the full faith and credit of the government and are some of the safest investments available.

What are corporate bonds vs government bonds?

Corporate bonds are financial instruments issued by companies to borrow money from investors. Government bonds are financial instruments issued by the government to borrow money from investors. The primary difference between the two is that government bonds are safer investments, while corporate bonds are typically riskier but offer the potential for higher returns.

How to invest in government bonds in India?

Here are different ways to buy government bonds in India:

1. Primary Auction
When the government issues new bonds, it conducts primary auctions where it sells these bonds directly to investors.

2. Secondary market
After the primary issuance, government bonds become available for trading in the secondary market. The secondary market provides a platform for investors to buy and sell bonds that have already been issued.

3. Retail Direct
In recent years, the RBI has introduced the "Retail Direct" framework to allow individual investors to directly participate in the primary market auctions for government securities. This initiative aims to make government bonds more accessible to retail investors.

How do government bonds work?

Government bonds are considered as a low-risk investment option. Here's how they work:

1. The government issues bonds, either through auctions or direct allotment, to finance its spending or other financial requirements.
2. When you purchase a government bond, you lend money to the government with the assurance that it will be repaid.
3. Bonds may have different tenures, ranging from short-term to long-term.
4. Government bonds offer fixed interest rates.
5. At maturity, the face value of the bond is repaid to the investor.
6. Investors can also sell their bonds in the secondary market if they choose to prematurely liquidate their investment.

The factors that impact government bond prices include inflation, interest rates, and market demand. They are a low-risk investment option and are considered as a good option for diversifying an investor's portfolio. However, investors should research and understand the specific terms and conditions of the bond before investing.

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