Gate Provision

A gate provision refers to a statement in a fund's offering documents, which grants the fund manager authority to restrict or suspend redemptions.
Gate Provision
3 min

The gate provision is generally included in the structure of many investment funds, particularly hedge funds and private equity funds. This provision controls liquidity risks and, by doing so, protects the assets of the fund by curtailing the money that investors can withdraw within a stipulated period.

This article discusses gate provision in hedge funds and gate provision in mutual funds.

What is a gate provision

Gate provisions are a crucial component of fund trading, particularly in hedge funds. These provisions, outlined in a fund's offering documents, grant the fund manager the authority to restrict or halt redemptions under specific circumstances. The prospectus typically provides detailed scenarios where redemptions would be limited or halted entirely.

Gate provisions are designed to prevent a run on a fund, especially when the assets held by the fund are illiquid and difficult to convert to cash quickly. While scenarios and guidelines are established, the decision to exercise the gate provision ultimately rests with the fund manager.

How do gate provision work

Gate provisions function as a safeguard within investment funds to control the amount of money that can be withdrawn by investors within a specified period. Here's how they typically operate, using an example:

Suppose a hedge fund has total assets of Rs. 100 crore. The fund includes a gate provision in its terms that limits total withdrawals to 10% of the fund's assets per quarter. If investors collectively submit redemption requests totalling Rs. 15 crore during a particular quarter, the gate provision will cap these redemptions at Rs. 10 crore (10% of Rs. 100 crore).

This limitation means that only Rs. 10 crore can be disbursed to investors in that quarter. If the total requested amount exceeds the gate threshold, the fund manager will typically prorate the available Rs. 10 crore among all the requests. For instance, if an investor requested Rs. 5 crore, they might only receive a proportionate share based on the total requests and the Rs. 10 crore limit.

By implementing such a mechanism, the fund prevents a sudden outflow of cash, which could necessitate the liquidation of investments at inopportune times, helping to maintain the fund’s stability and asset value during volatile market conditions.

The gate provision in practice

In practice, the gate provision is triggered during periods when investors seek to redeem their investments en masse, such as during economic downturns or periods of fund underperformance. The provision specifies a maximum percentage of the fund's total assets that can be redeemed by all investors combined in any given redemption period. For example, if the gate is set at 15%, no matter how many redemption requests are received, only 15% of the fund's total assets will be disbursed. This controlled redemption process helps fund managers avoid liquidating assets under unfavourable conditions, thereby protecting the fund's long-term viability and the interests of remaining investors.

Example of a gate provision

A gate provision might be employed by a hedge fund or a private equity fund to manage large-scale redemptions.

For instance, during the financial volatility observed in the early 2020s, a Mumbai-based hedge fund instituted a gate provision that capped withdrawals at 20% of its total assets per quarter. This was crucial in preventing the fund from needing to sell off its holdings in a depressed market, which could have led to significant losses. By limiting the withdrawal rate, the fund was able to stabilise its asset base, manage liquidity effectively, and ensure fair treatment of all investors, regardless of their timing of exit.

Types of gate provision

Gate provisions can vary significantly, including:

  • Soft gate provision: Allow some flexibility in withdrawals beyond the set limit, usually at the manager's discretion.
  • Hard gate provision: Strictly enforce the withdrawal limit without exceptions.
  • Time-based gate provision: Limit withdrawals over specific time intervals, such as quarterly or annually.

Soft gate provision

A soft gate provision is a more flexible type of gate that allows fund managers to permit withdrawals beyond the predefined limit based on their discretion. This type of gate is designed to offer some leeway in exceptional circumstances where an investor may need urgent access to funds. The decision to exceed the limit can depend on the fund’s liquidity position and market conditions. This flexibility helps maintain investor trust and satisfaction while still providing a safeguard to manage liquidity risks effectively.

Hard gate provision

A hard gate provision strictly enforces a predetermined limit on withdrawals without exceptions. Once the withdrawal cap is reached for a particular period, no additional redemptions are permitted, regardless of the circumstances. This type of gate is implemented to ensure maximum control over the fund's liquidity and protect the asset base during volatile market conditions. It provides a robust safeguard against the risk of rapid asset depletion, ensuring stability for the fund and equity among investors.

Time-based gate provision

A time-based gate provision restricts withdrawals to specific time intervals, such as quarterly or annually, irrespective of the individual withdrawal amounts. This approach allows fund managers to plan and manage liquidity by predicting cash flow needs in advance. It prevents sudden liquidity shortages by spreading out redemption requests over a longer duration, thereby stabilising the fund’s financial health and minimising the impact of large, unexpected withdrawals.


Gate provisions are crucial mechanisms within the structure of investment funds, designed to manage liquidity and protect the fund's assets during periods of high redemption demand. By implementing soft, hard, and time-based gates, fund managers can effectively control cash outflows, ensuring the fund's stability and operational integrity. This prudent liquidity management not only safeguards investor interests but also maintains the fund's ability to capitalise on market opportunities without being forced into untimely asset sales.

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Frequently asked questions

Can Gate Provisions be customised in financial agreements?
Yes, gate provisions can be customised in financial agreements. They can be tailored to suit specific investment terms, risk appetites, and liquidity requirements of both investors and fund managers, allowing for flexibility in how withdrawal restrictions are applied.
Why are Gate Provisions important for investors?
Gate provisions are crucial for investors as they help manage liquidity risk by controlling the pace at which investors can withdraw funds. This ensures that fund managers are not forced to sell assets hastily, potentially at lower prices, thereby protecting the fund's overall financial health and stability.
When are Gate Provisions typically activated?
Gate provisions are typically activated during periods of high redemption requests or market stress. They are triggered when the total redemption requests exceed a predetermined threshold of the fund’s assets, allowing fund managers to maintain control over the fund’s liquidity and asset management.
Can Gate Provisions be tailored to specific fund strategies?
Yes, gate provisions can be specifically tailored to match the liquidity and investment strategy of a fund. For instance, funds invested in less liquid assets may have stricter gate provisions to mitigate liquidity risks and ensure alignment with the fund's long-term investment goals.
What is the purpose of a Gate Provision in financial agreements?
The primary purpose of a gate provision in financial agreements is to prevent large-scale, sudden withdrawals that could destabilise a fund, especially during volatile market conditions. It allows fund managers to maintain control over cash flows and asset liquidation, ensuring the fund's stability and operational integrity.
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Bajaj Finance Limited (“BFL”) is an NBFC offering loans, deposits and third-party wealth management products.

The information contained in this article is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute any financial advice. The content herein has been prepared by BFL on the basis of publicly available information, internal sources and other third-party sources believed to be reliable. However, BFL cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information, assure its completeness, or warrant such information will not be changed. 

This information should not be relied upon as the sole basis for any investment decisions. Hence, User is advised to independently exercise diligence by verifying complete information, including by consulting independent financial experts, if any, and the investor shall be the sole owner of the decision taken, if any, about suitability of the same.