What Is Capital Investment

Understand what capital investment is and how it can help to grow your business
Capital Investment
4 min
16 July 2024

Capital investment is an investment in—or acquisition of—any asset that helps in furthering the company’s long-term goals and objectives. It covers everything—from fixing a computer and acquiring a new SAAS system to replacing outdated machinery.

The main objective of capital investment is to help a company advance its long-term business goals. The company can recover the invested capital from the earnings generated over a specified period. Some examples of assets purchased as capital investments include real estate, manufacturing plants, and machinery.

While this concept is typically associated with businesses, individuals can also make capital investments.

One such option is investing in a fixed deposit (FD). An FD is a financial instrument where you deposit a lump sum for a specific period at a fixed interest rate. It's a low-risk investment that provides steady returns over time, contributing to your long-term financial goals, much like capital investments do for businesses. Fixed deposit is an excellent way to grow your savings while ensuring the safety of your investment.

Pro tip

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How capital investment works

Capital investment is the amount of funds required for a business to expand and grow. If the business performs well in the market, this amount can be recovered over the years in the form of profits after covering all costs.

Capital investment can be made by the owners or founders of the business from their resources or by raising funds from the market. The process is rather simple if owners make the contribution. However, raising funds from outside sources requires a strong business plan, an idea that has great potential to succeed, and a good credit rating of owners. Owners with a history of financial setbacks may find securing funds for their capital investment plan challenging.

Also read: What is investment

While there is no minimum or maximum limit for capital investment, the amount should be enough to significantly boost the company’s performance. Investors putting money into a business may want to evaluate the company’s balance sheet and ability to repay the loan. Outside investment sources can include various financial institutions, angel investors, or venture capitalists (VCs) who usually fund start-ups, small existing companies, or growing businesses.

After operating in the market for a certain period, a company may also issue an Initial Public Offer (IPO) of shares to the general public as part of its capital investment plan. This is an excellent source of business capital as it brings in a large pool of funds.

Types of Capital Investments

Capital investments typically fall into two main categories:

1. Financial capital

This refers to investments in financial instruments like stocks and bonds. Individuals, angel investors, or venture capital firms might provide funds in exchange for ownership stakes (equity) or debt repayment with interest. Investors expect to earn returns through dividends (for equity) or interest payments (for debt).

2. Physical capital

This involves investments in tangible assets that are used for the company's operations.

  • Land and building investments: Purchasing land, constructing new buildings, or acquiring existing ones.
  • Equipment and machinery investments: Buying tools, machinery, or other equipment necessary for production or operations.
  • Other tangible assets: This could include vehicles, furniture, or any other physical assets used by the business.

Also read: Smart investments

Advantages and disadvantages of capital investments

Let us now look at some pros and cons of capital investments.

1. Advantages

  • Value creation: Capital investments can add significant value to a company when planned well. For instance, new equipment, such as a computer or ball-bearing machine, can improve the efficiency of the company’s value chain.
  • Financial profits: Capital investments undoubtedly boost the financial cause of businesses. They help improve not only the company’s production efficiency but also the overall economy of organisations and markets.
  • Maintain healthy competition: Capital investments play a crucial role in boosting market competition. Healthy competition is essential to propelling companies to develop high-quality products. As such, capital investments become crucial when a product faces competition in the market.

2. Disadvantages

  • Resorting to borrowing: While capital investments are made to improve a company's cash flow in operations, they may sometimes be insufficient to cover the expected costs. The company may resort to debt financing to keep the business afloat. This can put the owner in further debt.
  • Subject to scrutiny: Once a business is set up, it is under constant scrutiny by the income tax department, interference by investors, pressure, restrictions, and covenants by lenders and banks. It is also obliged to necessary disclosure by regulators as in the case of a public company. Such scrutiny may interfere with its smooth functioning.

  • Unpredictability: Unpredictability means that a high-quality asset that is well-valued can become obsolete overnight. For instance, the value of a DVD store significantly declined after streaming was introduced to the market.

Also read: Best investment plan

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Example of a capital investment

A common example of a capital investment is a manufacturing company purchasing new machinery to increase production capacity. This machinery is a physical asset that will be used over the long term to generate revenue for the company. The purchase of the machinery is a capital expenditure because it is an investment in the company's future growth.

Other examples of capital investments include:

  • A construction company buying new bulldozers and excavators.
  • A technology company investing in research and development to create new products.
  • A retail company opening a new store in a new market.
  • A pharmaceutical company investing in a new drug development program.

Conclusion

Capital investment is an all-encompassing concept crucial to almost every company regardless of its stage of development. It helps businesses introduce new products and services, expand their operations, and foray into new markets. It also creates employment opportunities and bodes well for a country's overall economic growth.

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Disclaimer

As regards deposit taking activity of Bajaj Finance Ltd (BFL), the viewers may refer to the advertisement in the Indian Express (Mumbai Edition) and Loksatta (Pune Edition) furnished in the application form for soliciting public deposits or refer https://www.bajajfinserv.in/fixed-deposit-archives
The company is having a valid Certificate of Registration dated March 5, 1998 issued by the Reserve Bank of India under section 45 IA of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. However, the RBI does not accept any responsibility or guarantee about the present position as to the financial soundness of the company or for the correctness of any of the statements or representations made or opinions expressed by the company and for repayment of deposits/discharge of the liabilities by the company.

For the FD calculator the actual returns may vary slightly if the Fixed Deposit tenure includes a leap year.