Market Risk

The unpredictability linked with the investment choices.
Market Risk
3 min
27-March -2024

Every successful investor deals with the financial markets with caution, knowing that market risks might appear at any time. However, what is the meaning of market risk, and how can one negotiate its uncertainties? This blog aims to clarify the fundamentals of market risk, its effects, and practical management techniques. By the end of this discussion, you will have a firm understanding of how to deal with systematic risk effectively.

What is market risk

Market risk, often known as systematic risk, is a fundamental idea that captures the uncertainty involved in making investments. It includes acknowledging the possibility of negative outcomes resulting from elements influencing the general performance of financial markets. Recognising the complexity of market risk is essential to understanding it, as it affects not only certain securities or organisations but the whole financial system at once. Understanding market risk involves more than just being aware of it; it also entails understanding its consequences and finding practical ways to reduce its influence on your investment portfolio.

Understanding market risk

A key element of investment is market risk, which has an impact on all players in the financial markets. Because of its broad impact, macroeconomic factors are extremely important for you to keep a careful eye on. Natural disasters, geopolitical tensions, shifts in central bank policy, and variations in inflation rates can all cause market volatility. It is, therefore, imperative that you use effective risk management techniques in order to successfully deal with unpredictable market situations.

Other types of risk

  • Specific risk (Unsystematic risk): This type of risk is exclusive to a specific organisation or sector. Strategies for diversification can help reduce it. Specific risk, often referred to as diversifiable risk or unsystematic risk, is related to variables that impact individual stocks as opposed to the market as a whole.
  • Credit risk: Credit risk is the probability that borrowers may fail to meet their loan commitments. It is especially essential for fixed-income assets like bonds. Changes in credit ratings and economic downturns can both influence credit risk.
  • Liquidity risk: Liquidity risk is the likelihood of being unable to sell an asset quickly enough without incurring a large loss in value. Illiquid assets may need longer time frames or discounts to sell, exposing investors to liquidity risk.

Managing market risk

Use hedging mechanisms: To protect yourself against unfavourable market fluctuations, use index options or put options. By acting as a safety net, hedging techniques reduce the negative effects of market volatility on investment portfolios.

Adopt diversification: To reduce exposure to market risk, distribute assets throughout a range of sectors and asset types. As a strong defensive strategy, diversification strengthens portfolios against unstable market circumstances.

Keep an eye on the currency profiles: The currency characteristics of the organisations you invest in should be closely monitored. Use assets wisely across markets and currencies to reduce the risk associated with exchange rates.

Stay informed about interest rates: Keep up with monetary policy changes and their potential effect on interest rates. Adapt investing methods as necessary to successfully manage changes in interest rates.

Preserve liquidity: Make sure your investment portfolio has enough liquidity, particularly when the market is volatile. To ensure ease of trading and liquidity, choose equities with minimal transaction fees.

Put money into reliable sectors: Provide funding to sectors of the economy that show resiliency in the face of adversity. To protect against market downturns, think about investing in industries like consumer staples and utilities.

Have a long-term view: Accept a long investing horizon in order to weather market turbulence.

Refrain from impulsive responses to temporary market fluctuations and maintain a methodical approach to investing.

What are some types of market risks

  • Interest rate risk: Interest rate fluctuations are the source of interest rate risk, which is especially important when it comes to fixed-income assets like bonds. Interest rate changes can alter bond yields and prices, which can have an effect on the performance of the entire portfolio.
  • Equity risk: Price fluctuations for stocks are a source of equity risk. Equity risk may be influenced by a number of factors, including investor mood, economic circumstances, and company performance.
  • Commodity risk: This type of risk is related to changes in the pricing of commodities like gold, crude oil, and agricultural items. Commodity prices are influenced by a number of factors, including weather patterns, geopolitical conflicts, and the dynamics of supply and demand.
  • Currency risk: Currency risk, sometimes referred to as Exchange-rate risk, is the result of fluctuations in the relative prices of different currencies. Currency risk may be present for investors with foreign currency-denominated assets.

Measuring market risk

When it comes to determining and controlling risk in the world of investing, accuracy is crucial. Using a variety of quantitative methodologies, market risk measurement attempts to estimate the possible severity of unfavourable events related to investment decisions. The value-at-risk (VaR) model is one such often-used technique that measures the greatest possible loss of a portfolio within a given time frame with a particular degree of confidence. Also, the beta coefficient is a useful indicator of an asset's susceptibility to general market fluctuations, offering important information about exposure to market risk. By adopting these measuring methods, you provide yourself with the ability to make wise investment choices and cautiously manage market volatility.

The bottom line

Market risk represents the unpredictability that characterises financial markets and is influenced by outside forces beyond an individual's control. Diversification can help reduce specific risks, but market risk is always there and continues to influence investing environments. Through knowledge, assessment, and management of market risk, investors may confidently and resiliently survive periods of market volatility.


1. Bajaj Finance Limited (“BFL”) is a Non-Banking Finance Company (NBFC) and Prepaid Payment Instrument Issuer offering financial services viz., loans, deposits, Bajaj Pay Wallet, Bajaj Pay UPI, bill payments and third-party wealth management products. The details mentioned in the respective product/ service document shall prevail in case of any inconsistency with respect to the information referring to BFL products and services on this page.

2. All other information, such as, the images, facts, statistics etc. (“information”) that are in addition to the details mentioned in the BFL’s product/ service document and which are being displayed on this page only depicts the summary of the information sourced from the public domain. The said information is neither owned by BFL nor it is to the exclusive knowledge of BFL. There may be inadvertent inaccuracies or typographical errors or delays in updating the said information. Hence, users are advised to independently exercise diligence by verifying complete information, including by consulting experts, if any. Users shall be the sole owner of the decision taken, if any, about suitability of the same.

Standard Disclaimer

Investments in the securities market are subject to market risk, read all related documents carefully before investing.

Research Disclaimer

Broking services offered by Bajaj Financial Securities Limited (Bajaj Broking) | REG OFFICE: Bajaj Auto Limited Complex, Mumbai –Pune Road Akurdi Pune 411035. Corp. Office: Bajaj Broking., 1st Floor, Mantri IT Park, Tower B, Unit No 9 &10, Viman Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra 411014. SEBI Registration No.: INZ000218931 | BSE Cash/F&O/CDS (Member ID:6706) | NSE Cash/F&O/CDS (Member ID: 90177) | DP registration No: IN-DP-418-2019 | CDSL DP No.: 12088600 | NSDL DP No. IN304300 | AMFI Registration No.: ARN –163403.


Research Services are offered by Bajaj Financial Securities Limited as Research Analyst under SEBI Registration No.: INH000010043.

Details of Compliance Officer: Ms. Kanti Pal (For Broking/DP/Research) | Email: | Contact No.: 020-4857 4486 |

This content is for educational purpose only.

Investment in the securities involves risks, investor should consult his own advisors/consultant to determine the merits and risks of investment.

Frequently asked questions

What are the four types of market risk?

Interest rate risk, stock risk, commodity risk, and currency risk are the four primary categories of market risk.

What is a risk on the market?

Market risk is the potential for losses as a result of variables influencing the overall performance of financial market assets.

What are market and price risks?

While price risk is concerned with changes in the pricing of particular assets or securities, market risk is the uncertainty surrounding the performance of the market as a whole.

What is market-to-market risk?

Market-to-market risk is the term used to describe possible losses brought on by shifts in the asset or investment's market value. This risk is especially significant for investments that are often marked-to-market, such as financial instruments traded on exchanges or derivatives.

Show More Show Less