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Things To Know About COVID-19

The WHO (World Health Organisation) characterised COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019), whose origin is traced to China’s Wuhan city in Hubei province, as a pandemic on 11th March 2020.

In India, COVID-19 case count as well as death toll have been increasing every day. Take a look at the critical details related to this disease for enhanced safety during this fast-moving and one of the most potent health crises.

What is COVID-19?

COVID-19 is a highly communicable disease caused by a novel strain of the Coronavirus family, SARS-CoV-2, previously unidentified in humans. The disease results in infection to the respiratory tract, including the upper throat, nose, sinuses, windpipe as well as lungs, in the human body.

The disease primarily spreads through human-to-human contact, both direct and indirect. Infections through Coronavirus can result in mild to severe health conditions.

Due to its novel nature, the human body lacks immunity response, which is one of the primary reasons for millions succumbing to the deadly Coronavirus infection. Also, various vaccines for COVID-19 are in their trial phase globally, at different stages of testing and development. Thus, in the absence of a prescribed cure, individuals must undertake necessary preventive measures to stop the spread of the virus.

What are the Symptoms of COVID-19?

Some common signs and symptoms of Coronavirus include –

  • Trouble in breathing
  • Mild to high fever with body temperature usually above 100-degree Fahrenheit
  • Mild cough that may or may not get severe with time
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Mild chills accompanied with shivers

As the virus strains may affect individuals across various demographics and at varying degrees, healthcare professionals have also identified some less common yet identifiable co-morbid Coronavirus symptoms.

They include –

  • Persistent soreness in the throat
  • Lost appetite
  • Reduced or complete loss of smell and/or taste
  • Mild to severe aches in muscles
  • Persistent or recurring headache
  • Diarrhoea and nausea

What are the factors that cause COVID-19?

Some common factors that can lead to Coronavirus infection are mentioned below.

  • Reduced defence potential of the host that includes the human body’s response to pathogens in terms of adaptive and innate immunity
  • Underlying medical conditions that weaken the human body
  • Close contact with high-risk individuals like family members of COVID-19 patients or health workers providing services to such patients within the previous 2 to 14 days
  • Visit to places that carry a high risk of contamination, such as Coronavirus treatment facilities
  • Age of an individual
  • Densely populated regions or areas with reduced possibility of following social distancing norms
  • Practices of personal hygiene such as sanitisation after direct contact with individuals or items that carry a risk of COVID-19 contagion
  • Flouting regulatory norms like social distancing or wearing face masks during public gatherings, self-isolation or institutional/home quarantine after contact with high-risk individuals or places, etc.
  • Living in temperature and climatic conditions that reduce innate immunity and nurture viral growth, like low temperatures and humidity
  • Inadequate ventilation and limited airflow resulting in increased exposure to high-risk disease contraction via aerosol or direct transmission

Although researchers continue to work on accurate identification of Coronavirus spread and transmission, the factors mentioned above are the common causes leading to a quick transmission of COVID-19 and similar infections.

What is the Most Common Diagnosis for COVID-19 Patients?

Diagnosis for COVID-19 is most commonly done via a swab test, with the swab sample collected from the upper respiratory tract via the nasal cavity or throat. As virus infestation in the early stages is present in the upper respiratory tract, it is easy to arrive at an accurate diagnosis result with the sample collected from there.

Individuals with a risk of exposure and virus transmission can approach a doctor if they observe signs like –

  • High fever, usually over 100-degree Fahrenheit.
  • Breathing trouble.
  • Mild to severe coughing.

With rapid testing performed in various states across India, over 70,000 cases of infection is being reported almost every day.

For a better understanding of how is Coronavirus diagnosed, know that it is done via two methods to undertake effective measures –

  • Virus diagnosis
  • Antibody diagnosis

While the former helps identify whether an individual is currently infected or not, the latter is a more potent way to identify if someone has been ever exposed to the virus. This method of diagnosis helps identify risk potency and exercise control from further spread.

Once diagnosed, individuals are administered treatment based on the severity of such infection.

What are some of the measures to prevent COVID-19


The following prevention methods can help individuals remain safe and reduce the risks of COVID-19 contagion.

  • Stay sanitised either with the use of an alcohol-based sanitiser or via frequent hand wash with soap and water.
  • Adopt proper social distancing measures when in public, with a minimum distance of 6 feet from others. Also, practice staying at home when going outside is not necessary.
  • Use face mask made of at least 3-layered clothing to cover nose and mouth when in public.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth to prevent transmission from contaminated surfaces
  • Disinfect surfaces and objects prone to frequent, unavoidable touch such as doorknobs, tabletops, faucets and sinks, toilets, switchboards, etc.
  • Clean clothes after any long or short distance travel to reduce any chances of disease transmission to those near you.

Undertake essential measures to ensure Coronavirus transmission is minimised. If there are symptoms, stay in self-isolation for a minimum of two weeks, and avail immediate treatment if the symptoms of the disease are identifiable. While there is no known Coronavirus cure, on-time diagnosis reduces the chances of severe ailments, ensuring fast and steady recovery.

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